Until recently, most labor market research has focused predominantly on wage and salary employment, however after decades of comparative neglect and with self-employment rates showing great cross-country variation, which is likely to affect labor market performances and certainly deserves to be understood. Self-employment has re-emerged as a relevant aspect in many developed countries, and this recent renaissance in countries that had previously experienced a steady decline in the self-employment rate guaranteed its revival in the public debate. This diverted attention spurge from the fact that self-employment is no longer seen only as a compelling solution for individuals who have few opportunities in the wage sector or earn less than others with similar observable characteristics but is also an opportunity for dynamic individuals who seek a different career path, and most importantly is that governments see also in self-employment a potential route out of poverty, a way to alleviate the burden of unemployment that overwhelm the nations, and overall mechanism to boost growth and combat the economic crisis. The idea of revitalization is furthermore a result of recognizing that self-employment has not begun the slippery slope towards historical extinction. That self-employed workers are a substantial minority of the working population since they account for at least ten percent of total employment in most OECD countries (OECD 2020).
However, the complex nature of self-employment poses considerable challenges for the design of economic policy measures destined to reach these economic ambitions, this is the case because an effective economic policy compels a good understanding of the processes for entry into self-employment. Such knowledge is a prerequisite to defining a coherent and comprehensive set of measures aiming to facilitate, induce, and support the transition to self-employment while simultaneously assuring an efficient allocation of public resources.
These elements shape the main aims of this research. On the one hand, this study aims to underline the stability of self-employment figures during the last three decades and pinpoint the current trends in self-employment, highlighting variations and similarities across the panel of the 28 OECD countries. On the other hand, it aims at developing an in-depth analysis of how the various country and individual-level factors affect self-employment. Examining how personal attributes of the individual influence the incidence of self-employment and how the institutional context facilitates or interferes with the enrolment in self-employment. This study also aims to examine the current status of the previously established results regarding the relationship linking both the individual and country-level factors to self-employment.
The line of reasoning advanced by this research is typical of all democratic countries. Countries in which a multi-party system exists and an electoral system is of substantial importance to political conduct. However, and in the light of the vulnerability of Morocco as a newborn democracy, that still has a long way ahead of it towards a full democratization phase, it’s crucial and of tremendous importance to understand the limitations and flaws of its political system, to be able to provide some concrete solutions that will consolidate its democratization and enhance the role of its political system vis-à-vis the state. After all understanding once limitation is the only true road to achieving successful change, and indeed this research follows this simple principle, working at highlighting the true determinants of the policy position of the three dominant political parties in the country, the Justice and Development Party, the Authenticity and Modernity Party, and the Isltiqlal party.
This research starts at the core of each party, embarking on a journey that originates from the promises buried in each political manifesto, the manifesto in this context serves both as a powerful instrument and a strong indicator that will help identify the policy position of a given party at a given point of time, and indeed the aim of this research is to determine the policy position of each of the three parties, on the Right-Left spectrum as a start, and then along with different issues that are of great salience to the well-being of the citizens and to the development of the country as a whole. This research translates the political text provided by each party into substantial quantitative data, following the instructions provided by the Manifesto Project team, that it is then used to measure the positions occupied by each party on different Programmematic dimensions to prove that the three political parties share an identical political ideology that it has deep roots in the cultural, religious and historical background that shaped the country throughout the years, and which yields a deep fragmentation in the political scene of the country void of any substantial power of opposition. This research through empirical and comparative study analyses upon closer examination the various similarities and differences affecting all the different positions held by each party on some pre-established dimensions, to eventually derive four major revelations surrounding the determinants of these deep similarities in ideology, the causes of the weak role of political opposition, the remedies to such limitations and most of all the answer to how political parties can overcome their figurative role and gain more substantial power to advance successful reforms and consolidate a fully democratic regime